The basic nature of the real property tenure that was transferred here from England included all of the following characteristics of ownership except

(a) Ownership by purchase was perpetual as long as taxes due were met.
(b) Land could descend to heirs either by will or inheritance.
(c) Ownership included surface resources but not subsurface resources or mineral
rights, like iron ore, whose ownership was retained by the state.
(d) The right to exploit owned resources (right of waste) was complete.