Stated goals are official statements of what an organization says and what it wants various publics to believe are its objectives. Which statement below best identifies the relationship between stated goals and real goals?

a. Generally speaking, stated goals that top management express are almost always real.
b. If you want to know what a police department’s real, unstated goals are, closely observe what members of the organization actually do.
c. There is rarely conflict in stated and real goals because police organizations are adept to respond to a vast array of constituencies.
d. Real goals usually are also stated, but rarely provide more guidance.